YERSINIOSIS

Description:

Uncommon infection contracted through the consumption of undercooked meat products

Symptoms:

  • Diarrhea (which is often bloody)
  • Low-grade fever
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Right-sided abdominal pain
  • Sore throat
  • Complications such as skin rash, joint pains
  • Ileitis, erythema nodosum
  • Acute arthritis
  • Spread of bacteria to the bloodstream (bacteremia
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Joint pain that appears a month after the initial symptoms
  • severe thirst
  • dry mouth or tongue
  • sunken eyes
  • dry skin
  • not peeing as often as usual
  • in infants, a dry diaper for several hours
  • no tears when crying
  • looking lethargic

Causes:

  • Caused by the species Yersinia enterocolitica
  • Consumption of undercooked meat products
  • Pigs-major animal reservoir for the few strains of Y. enterocolitica
  • Consuming contaminated milk or untreated water

Risk factors:

  • Occurrence: children and young adults
  • Frequently found in cooler climates
  • Occurs more often in winter than summer

Diagnostic tests:

  • Stool test
  • Tube agglutination
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
  • Radioimmunoassays
  • Imaging studies – Ultrasonography or CT scan
  • Colonoscopy

Differential diagnostics:

  • Ascariasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cyclospora
  • Cytomegalovirus colitis
  • E coli infections
  • Food poisoning
  • Bacterial gastroenteritis
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Giardiasis
  • Intestinal flukes
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Leptospirosis
  • Meningitis

Treatments:

  • Usually goes away with time
  • Antibiotic treatments- severe or complicated infections
  • Abscesses may require surgical drainage
  • Treatment – to the symptoms in most cases

Medications:

  • Doxycycline in combination with an aminoglycoside
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole
  • fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol
  • Third-generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines
  • Fluoroquinolones (not approved for use in children < 18 y)
  • Chloramphenicol, tetracycline

Lifestyle Management:

  • Avoiding raw or undercooked pork
  • Consuming only pasteurized milk or milk products.
  • Washing hands with soap and water before eating and preparing food
  • Preventing cross-contamination in the kitchen
  • Disposing animal feces in a sanitary manner
  • Protecting drinking and recreational water supplies from animal and human feces
  • Washing hands after touching raw meat, handling raw pork/chitterlings
  • Meat, poultry, pork, and hamburgers should be cooked until they are no longer pink in the middle
  • Washing raw fruits and vegetables before eating