WHIPWORM INFECTION

Description:

Infection of the large intestine caused by a parasite called Trichuris trichiura

Symptoms:

  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Painful or frequent defecation
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Fecal incontinence (during sleep)
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Headaches
  • Sudden and unexpected weight loss
  • Fecal incontinence or the inability to control defecation
  • Long-standing colitis (resembles inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Frequent, painful passage of stool
  • Vitamin A deficiency

Causes

  • Consuming dirt or water contaminated with feces
  • Consuming water containing whipworm parasites or their eggs
  • Eating fruits or vegetables that haven’t been thoroughly washed, cooked, or peeled

Risk Factors

  • Third most common roundworm of humans
  • Occurrence: areas with tropical weather and poor sanitation practices
  • Children- more prone
  • People coming in contact with soil that contains manure
  • Eating raw vegetables (growing in soil fertilized with manure)
  • Rural areas with poor sanitation and tropical climates
  • Southeast Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Central and South America-more prevalence

Diagnostic Tests:

  • Microscopic examination of eggs in stool sample
  • Stool test
  • Examination of the rectal mucosa by proctoscopy
  • Kato-Katz thick-smear technique
  • Full blood count: shows eosinophilia and, rarely, anaemia

Differential Diagnosis:

  • Chronic Anemia
  • Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis
  • Giardiasis
  • Other parasitic helminth infections
  • Protein Intolerance
  • Shigella Infection
  • Sinonasal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis
  • Soy Protein Intolerance
  • h4yloidiasis
  • Ulcerative Colitis in Children
  • Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection
  • Amebiasis
  • Ancylostoma Infection
  • Appendicitis Imaging
  • Ascariasis
  • Colitis
  • Constipation
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cyclosporiasis
  • Diarrhea
  • Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Treatments:

  • Anti-parasitic medication
  • Anthelminthic medications
  • Medications
  • Mebendazole
  • Albendazole or Ivermectin
  • Anthelminthic medications
  • People with diarrhea may be treated with loperamide

Lifestyle Management:

  • Washing your hands before handling food
  • Washing, peeling or cooking foods thoroughly before eating them
  • Teaching children not to eat soil
  • Teaching children wash their hands after playing outdoors
  • Boiling or purifying drinking water
  • Avoiding contact with soil contaminated with fecal matter
  • Using caution around animal feces and cleaning up fecal matter when possible
  • Keeping the grass cut short in areas where dogs or cats regularly defecate
  • Improved facilities for disposal of faeces