• long-term condition, where the colon and rectum become inflamed
  • Small ulcers can develop on the colon’s lining, and can bleed and produce pus


  1. abdominal pain
  2. increased abdominal sounds
  3. bloody stools
  4. diarrhea
  5. fever
  6. rectal pain
  7. weight loss
  8. malnutrition
  9. Rectal bleeding
  10. fatigue


  1. genetics
  2. environmental factors
  3. immune system malfunction

Risk factors

  • Isotretinoin use.
  • family history
  • age
  • race

Diagnostic Tests

  • stool test: a doctor examines your stool for blood, bacteria, and parasites
  • endoscopy: a doctor uses a flexible tube to examine the stomach, esophagus, and small intestine
  • colonoscopy: diagnostic test that involves insertion of a long, flexible tube into the rectum to examine the inside of the colon
  • biopsy: a surgeon removes a tissue sample from the colon
  • barium enema: X-rays are taken of your colon and rectum, using barium to provide contrast
  • blood test
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy
  • CT scan


  • Aminosalicylates (5-ASAs)
  • Immunosuppressants
  • corticosteroid
  • surtgery
  • biological medication
  • Proctocolectomy with ileostomy
  • ileoanal anastomosis


  • sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
  • mesalamine (Asacol and Lialda)
  • balsalazide (Colazal)
  • olsalazine (Dipentum)
  • Azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol, Purixam)
  • Cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
  • Infliximab (Remicade), adalimumab (Humira) and golimumab (Simponi)
  • Vedolizumab (Entyvio)
  • loperamide (Imodium)
  • acetaminophen (Tylenol, others)

Lifestyle Management

  • Limit dairy products
  • Try low-fat foods
  • Limit fiber, if it’s a problem food
  • Avoid other problem foods
  • Eat small meals
  • Regular relaxation and breathing exercises
  • control stress
  • Drink plenty of liquids