1. caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria
  2. remains a serious health threat in the developing world


  1. Fever that starts low and increases daily, possibly reaching as high as 104.9 F (40.5 C)
  2. Headache
  3. Weakness and fatigue
  4. Muscle aches
  5. Sweating
  6. Dry cough
  7. Loss of appetite and weight loss
  8. Abdominal pain
  9. Diarrhea or constipation
  10. Rash
  11. Extremely swollen abdomen
  12. Become delirious
  13. Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what’s known as the typhoid state


  • eating raw vegetables that have been fertilised with human waste
    contaminated milk products
  • using a toilet contaminated with bacteria and touching your mouth before washing your hands
  • eating seafood from a water source contaminated by infected faeces or urine

Risk Factors

  • Oral transmission via food or beverages handled by an often asymptomatic individual—a carrier—who chronically sheds the bacteria through stool or, less commonly, urine
  • Hand-to-mouth transmission after using a contaminated toilet and neglecting hand hygiene
  • Oral transmission via sewage-contaminated water or shellfish (especially in the developing world).
  • Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic
  • Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria
  • Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
    Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi

Diagnostic Tests

  • culture test
  • Body fluid or tissue culture
  • medical and travel history
  • analysing samples of blood, stools or urine.


  • Antibiotic therapy
  • surgery
  • dehydration


  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  • Ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ)
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Cefixime PO
  • Azithromycin PO
  • Cefotaxime IV
  • Aztreonam IV
  • Imipenem IV


  • Two vaccines are available.
  • One is injected in a single dose at least one week before travel.
  • One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other day.
  • Wash before eating
  • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables
  • Choose hot foods.