caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria
remains a serious health threat in the developing world
Fever that starts low and increases daily, possibly reaching as high as 104.9 F (40.5 C)
Weakness and fatigue
Loss of appetite and weight loss
Diarrhea or constipation
Extremely swollen abdomen
Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what’s known as the typhoid state
eating raw vegetables that have been fertilised with human waste
contaminated milk products using a toilet contaminated with bacteria and touching your mouth before washing your hands
eating seafood from a water source contaminated by infected faeces or urine
Oral transmission via food or beverages handled by an often asymptomatic individual—a carrier—who chronically sheds the bacteria through stool or, less commonly, urine
Hand-to-mouth transmission after using a contaminated toilet and neglecting hand hygiene
Oral transmission via sewage-contaminated water or shellfish (especially in the developing world).
Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic
Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria
Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi Diagnostic Tests
Body fluid or tissue culture
medical and travel history
analysing samples of blood, stools or urine.
Ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ)
Two vaccines are available.
One is injected in a single dose at least one week before travel.
One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other day.
Wash before eating
Avoid raw fruits and vegetables
Choose hot foods.