TOURETTE SYNDROME

Description

  • A disorder that involves repetitive movements or unwanted sounds (tics)
  • Symptoms tend to be most severe during the teenage years
  • A neurological condition

Symptoms

  • Tics can be vocal or physical and complex or simple.

Simple vocal tics:

  • Grunting
  • Clearing the throat
  • Coughing
  • Screaming

Simple physical tics:

  • Blinking
  • Jerking the head
  • Twitching the nose
  • Twisting the neck

Complex vocal tics:

  • Repeating other people’s phrases
  • Repeating the same phrase over and over again
  • Swearing loudly or shouting inappropriate words

Complex physical tics:

  • Shaking the head
  • Hitting or kicking objects
  • Jumping
  • Shaking

Causes

  • Cause is unknown
  • An abnormality may exist in the basal ganglia
  • An inherited genetic defect may be the cause

Risk Factors

  • Family history
  • Males are more likely to develop this syndrome than females

Diagnostic Tests

  • Symptoms based diagnosis
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan
  • Computerized tomography(CT) Scan
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Treatment

  • No cure, treatment is aimed at controlling tics

Medications:

  • Medications that block or lessen dopamine
  • Botulinum (Botox) injections
  • ADHD medications
  • Central adrenergic inhibitors
  • Antidepressants
  • Antiseizure medications

Therapies:

  • Behavior therapy
  • Psychotherapy
  • DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation)

Medications

  • Haloperidol (Haldol)
  • Pimozide (Orap)
  • Methylphenidate (Concerta, Ritalin)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Adderall XR, Dexedrine)
  • Guanfacine (Tenex)
  • Clonidine (Catapres)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
  • Topiramate (Topamax)

Lifestyle Management

  • Have a positive outlook
  • Lead a healthy life
  • Do not over stress
  • Join a support group