•  known as gastric ulcers, are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach
  •  also called peptic ulcer


  1. burning sensation or pain in the area between your chest and belly button
  2. dull pain in the stomach
  3. weight loss
  4. not wanting to eat because of pain
  5. nausea or vomiting
  6. bloating
  7. burping or acid reflux
  8. heartburn (burning sensation in the chest)
  9. pain improves when you eat, drink, or take antacids


  1. Helicobacter pylori bacteria 
  2.  certain pain relievers.
  3. steroids, anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin,
  4. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 
  5. excess acid (hyperacidity) in the stomach, which may be related to genetics, lifestyle (stress, smoking), and certain foods 
  6. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disease that makes the body produce excess stomach acid 

Risk factors

  • Have untreated stress.
  • Eat spicy foods.
  • smoking
  • alcohol

Diagnostic Tests

  • barium X-ray: a thick white liquid (barium) that you drink helps the stomach and small intestine show up on X-rays
  • endoscopy: a thin, lighted tube is inserted through the mouth and into the stomach to look for the presence of an ulcer
  • endoscopic biopsy: a piece of stomach tissue is removed so it can be analyzed
  • urea breath test 
  • stool antigen test
  • blood test


  • antibiotics
  • proton pump inhibitors (PPI)
  • H2-receptor antagonists
  • alginate
  • Antacids
  • paracetamol


  • amoxicillin (Amoxil), clarithromycin (Biaxin), metronidazole (Flagyl)
  • tinidazole (Tindamax), tetracycline (Tetracycline HCL) 
  • levofloxacin (Levaquin).
  • omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex)
  • esomeprazole (Nexium) and pantoprazole (Protonix).
  • ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB)
  • nizatidine (Axid AR).
  • sucralfate (Carafate) and misoprostol (Cytotec).

Lifestyle Management

  • Choose a healthy diet.
  • Consider foods containing probiotics.
  • Consider eliminating milk
  • Consider switching pain relievers.
  • Control stress.
  • Don’t smoke
  • avoid alcohol
  • get enough sleep


  • wash your hands with soap and water on a regular basis
  • To prevent ulcers caused by NSAIDs, stop using these medications 
  • Limiting alcohol consumption, avoiding tobacco products
  • properly managing stress
  • Protect yourself from infections