PULMONARY FIBROSIS

Description

Lungs become scarred and breathing becomes increasingly difficult also called termed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

Symptoms

  1. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  2. A dry cough
  3. Fatigue
  4. Unexplained weight loss
  5. Aching muscles and joints
  6. a rapid heart rate
  7. curving of the fingernails, which is called clubbing

Causes

  1. exposure to certain types of dust, such as metal or wood dust
    viral infections
  2. a family history of IPF
  3. smoking
  4. autoimmune diseases
  5. chemical exposure
  6. Medications

Risk Factors

  • between the ages of 40 and 70
  • have a history of smoking
  • have a family history of the condition
  • have an autoimmune disorder associated with the condition
  • have taken certain medications associated with the disease
  • have undergone cancer treatments, particularly chest radiation
  • work in an occupation associated with increased risk, such as mining, farming, or construction

Diagnostic Tests

  • Chest X-ray
  • Computerized tomography (CT).
  • Echocardiogram
  • Pulmonary function testing
  • Oximetry
  • Exercise stress test
  • Surgical biopsy.
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage

Treatments

  • Pulmonary rehabilitation
  • Surgery
  • Medications
  • Oxygen support
  • Lung transplant

Medications

  • corticosteroid (prednisone)
  • methotrexate or cyclosporine
  • acetylcysteine
  • pirfenidone

Lifestyle Management

  • stop smoking
  • healthy diet
  • vaccination
  • exercise