• Blood vessel ruptures within the brain or between the skull and brain
  • Tears the brain’s internal lining, tissues, and blood vessels
  • If not treated, it can cause lasting brain damage or death


  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness or varying levels of alertness
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Enlarged pupil in one of your eyes
  • Loss of vision on one side
  • Weakness on one part of your body
  • Shortness of breath or changed breathing patterns


  • Skull fracture during childhood or adolescence
  • Trauma or head injury
  • Damaging blow during a fall
  • Vehicular accident
  • Collision in contact sports

Risk Factors

  • Older adults
  • Having trouble walking without falling
  • Having suffered trauma to the head in the past
  • Taking blood thinning medications
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Not wearing a protective helmet during contact activities
  • Not wearing seatbelt while traveling in vehicles

Diagnostic Tests

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Neurological tests


  • Surgical drainage
  • Craniotomy
  • Medications
  • Rehabilitative Therapy


  • Anticonvulsants (Phenytoin)
  • Hyperosmotic agents (mannitol, glycerol, and hypertonic saline)


  • Always wear a seat belt
  • Always wear a properly fitted helmet while riding
  • Keep the home, yard, and workplace in good repair
  • Wear protective gear while playing contact sports
  • Follow traffic rules to avoid accidents in general
  • Do not try stunts without proper training and supervision
  • Do not consume excessive alcohol
  • Wear proper fitted shoes during hiking or similar activities
  • Always make yound children wear proper helmets

Lifestyle Management

  • Get adequate sleep at night
  • Ease back into the normal activities
  • Don’t participate in contact and recreational sports
  • Check with the doctor before taking medication