CHIKUNGUNYA

Description

  • A self-remitting febrile viral illness
  • Causes severe chronic incapacitating severe joint pain.
  • Derived from the African dialect Swahili, translates as “to be bent over.”
  • CHIKV is a virus mosquitoes transmit.

Symptoms

  • Symptoms begin 3–7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito
  • Common symptoms are fever and joint pain
  • Headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash
  • Symptoms can be similar to the symptoms of dengue fever and Zika
  • Pain is more intense and more concentrated in the joints
  • Stooped-over posture exhibited by individuals due to severe pain

Causes

  • Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are carriers of the virus
  • Transmitted to people through mosquito bites
  • Virus can spread through blood transfusion

Risk Factors

  • Infected travelers
  • From mother to newborn around the time of birth
  • Older adults
  • Children under the age of 1
  • Pregnant women
  • People with preexisting diseases

Diagnostic test

  • Symptoms based diagnosis
  • Blood test reveal above average amounts of antibodies
  • Testing serum or plasma to detect virus,viral nucleic acid or specific IgM

Treatments

  • No specific antiviral therapy
  • Symptoms are treated
  • Important to exclude other serious infections
  • Paracetamol to reduce fever and pain
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Management of electrolyte imbalance

Medications

  • Tylenol
  • NSAIDS, after Dengue is ruled out
  • Ibuprofen and acetaminophen
  • Aspirin must be avoided owing to bleeding risk

Prevention

  • Avoid collections of standing water
  • Use screens, windows, and doors to keep mosquitoes out of the house
  • Use insect repellents
  • Treat clothing with permethrin
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants
  • Identifying areas of risk and encouraging the use of preventive strategies
  • Apply insect repellants that contain deet, picaridin, IR3535
  • Empty standing water from containers such as flowerpots or buckets