BYSSINOSIS

Description:

An occupational lung disease, caused by prolonged inhalation of textile fiber dust.

Also called- “brown lung disease” or “Monday fever

Symptoms:

  • Severe cough
  • Chest tightness
  • Wheezing
  • Severe case- Flu like symptoms:
  • A fever
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Shivering
  • Tiredness
  • A dry cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tachypnea
  • Crackles (patients with more chronic exposure)

Causes:

  • Inhaling the dust produced by raw cotton
  • Inhalation of raw flax, hemp, cotton dust, and similar materials
  • Biologic materials present in Raw cotton & other textiles (endotoxins, tannins etc)
  • Hypersensitivity response in susceptible individuals
  • Triggering of allergic response or other processes

Risk factors:

  • A history of asthma or allergies- increase the risk
  • Smoking- increase the risk
  • Occupations that cause exposure to textile dust

Diagnostic tests:

  • Tests that may be ordered include:
  • Chest x-ray
  • CT scan test
  • Pulmonary function tests
  • Physical examination
  • Pulmonary function tests that show typical airflow obstruction
  • Pulmonary function tests showing reduction in ventilatory capacity
  • Surveillance measures, including symptom reporting
  • spirometry in textile worker

Differential diagnostics:

  • Asbestosis
  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Organic toxic dust syndromes
  • Siderosis
  • Silicosis
  • Stannosis
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia
  • Interstitial lung disease associated with collagen vascular diseases
  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Treatments:

  • Avoiding exposure to harmful dust
  • Stopping smoking
  • Supplemental oxygen therapy
  • Nebulizer (For chronic byssinosis)
  • Breathing exercises and physical activity

Medications:

  • Using bronchodilators (open constricted airways)
  • Corticosteroids
  • Home oxygen therapy

Lifestyle Management:

  • Controlling dust
  • Eliminating exposure to textile dust
  • Using exhaust hoods
  • Improving ventilation
  • Employing wetting procedures
  • Using face masks