acid from the stomach leaks up into the oesophagus (gullet)

also called acid regurgitation or gastroesophageal reflux (GER)


  • A burning sensation in your chest (heartburn), sometimes –p—– spreading to your throat, along with a sour taste in your mouth
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Dry cough
  • Hoarseness or sore throat
  • Regurgitation of food or sour liquid (acid reflux)
  • Sensation of a lump in your throat


  • Obesity
  • Fatty foods
  • chocolates, citrus fruits
  • smoking
  • spicy foods
  • stress, certain medication

Risk factors


  • Obesity
  • Bulging of top of stomach up into the diaphragm (hiatal hernia)
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Dry mouth
  • Asthma
  • Diabetes
  • Delayed stomach emptying
  • Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma

Diagnostic Tests


  • Ambulatory acid (pH) probe tests
  • X-ray of your upper digestive system
  • Endoscopy
  • Esophageal motility testing (manometry)
  • barium swallow, or barium meal


  • Antacids
  • H2 blockers
  • proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
  • alginates
  • laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF)
  • Endoscopic injection of bulking agents
  • Endoluminal gastroplication
  • Endoscopic augmentation with hydrogel implants
  • Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation
  • Laparoscopic insertion of a magnetic bead band (LINX)


  • cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid)
  • nizatidine (Axid) and ranitidine (Zantac)
  • esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid),
  • omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegerid), pantoprazole (Protonix)
  • rabeprazole (Aciphex) and dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)
  • Baclofen

Lifestyle Management

  • take antacids and other medications that reduce acid production
  • chew gum that isn’t peppermint or spearmint flavoured
  • avoid alcohol
  • remain upright for at least two hours after eating
  • don’t eat 3 to 4 hours before bed
  • stop smoking
  • don’t overeat
  • raise the head of your bed 4 to 6 inches to reduce reflux symptoms while sleeping