PROSTATE CANCER

Description

Cancer that occurs in a man’s prostate — a small walnut-shaped gland grows slowly and initially remains confined to the prostate gland

Symptoms

  1. frequent urination
  2. urination that burns
  3. difficulty with starting urine flow
  4. weak flow, or ‘dribbling’
  5. blood in the urine
  6. Trouble urinating
  7. Decreased force in the stream of urine
  8. Blood in the semen
  9. Discomfort in the pelvic area
  10. Bone pain
  11. Erectile dysfunction

Causes

  1. diet high in calcium
  2. Family history
  3. obesity
  4. exercise
  5. Mutations in the abnormal cells’ DNA

Risk Factors

  • older age
  • family history
  • obesity
  • diet & exercise
  • race

Diagnostic Tests

  • Digital rectal exam (DRE)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test
  • Bone scan
  • Ultrasound
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • biopsy

Treatments

  • Radical Prostatectomy
  • Cryosurgery
  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Internal Radiation (also called Brachytherapy)
  • Hormone Therapy
  • chemo therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

Medications

  • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs, LHRH agonists, and LHRH antagonists,
  • antagonists
  • Antiandrogens,
  • androgen-suppressing drugs
  • sipuleucel-T (Provenge)
  • dutasteride (Avodart)
  • finasteride (Propecia, Proscar)

Prevention

  • lycopene, an antioxidant found in tomatoes, watermelon, and pink grapefruit
  • vitamin E, which is found in highest quantities in nuts, oils, and green leafy vegetables
  • selenium, a mineral found in highest quantities in nuts, grains, fish, and eggs
  • soy isoflavones, chemicals found in soybean products, such as tofu, soy milk, and edamame
  • 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
  • Exercise most days of the week.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer
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