Bone Marrow Transplant

Overview

Bone Marrow transplant involves the replacement of damaged bone marrow with new stem cells that promote growth of new marrow. In simple words, it the removal of damaged stem cells with healthy blood cells. Bone marrow is the spongy, fatty tissue inside the bones which forms red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. It also contains hematopoietic stem cells that multiply and mature into many different kinds of blood cells.

Medical advancement has made bone marrow transplant process popular. The expert surgeons perform the surgery well with less or no complications. The surgery of bone marrow transplant in Hyderabad is common. Nowadays, many people opt for the bone marrow transplant process and it is gaining popularity at high rate. Also, bone marrow transplant cost falls within the budget of common people. 

Why You May Need a Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone marrow transplant procedure is needed when a person’s marrow stops functioning properly due to chronic infections, disease or cancer treatments. Some conditions that require a bone marrow transplant are:

  • Aplastic anemia
  • Cancer
  • Congenital neutropenia
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia

What Are the Complications Associated with a Bone Marrow Transplant?

Bone marrow transplant surgery is critical and there are certain bone marrow transplant risks associated such as:
  • Dropping of blood pressure
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Pain
  • Breathlessness
  • Fever
Bone marrow transplant complications vary with age, health condition and can be mild or very serious such as:
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Graft failure
  • Bleeding in the lungs, brain or other parts of the body
  • Cataract
  • Damage to vital organs
  • Anemia
  • Infections
  • Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting

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Types of Bone Marrow Transplant

There are two major types of bone marrow transplants.

Autologous Transplants: Autologous bone marrow transplant involve the use of individual’s own stem cells.

Allogeneic Transplants: It involve the use of donor cells of compatible genetic match.

Bone marrow transplant success rate depends on how well the donor and recipient genetically match.

Medications are available to ease bone marrow transplant pain, slow bone loss, and reduce inflammation. It is necessary to keep an open eye for rheumatoid arthritis signs, symptoms and treatments. 

How to Prepare for a Bone Marrow Transplant

Before the transplant, you need to undergo several tests that determines what type of bone marrow cells are needed. The treatment affects your immune system and thus the ability to fight infections. So, the transplant is performed at special ward to reduce the risk of infection.

How a Bone Marrow Transplant Is Performed?

Bone marrow cells are harvested from the donor to carry out successful allogeneic transplant. If individual’s own cells are used for transplant then they they’ll be retrieved from stem cell bank. After giving anesthesia, the cells are collected from both hipbones through a needle during the surgery .

Leukapheresis

A donor is given shots that make stem cells move from bone marrow into the bloodstream. The blood then flows from an intravenous (IV) line and a machine separates the white blood cells containing stem cells. A needle is inserted into the upper right portion of your chest called central venous catheter. This lets the flow of fluid with new stem cells directly into the heart. These stem cells flow into the blood and bone marrow where they begin to grow.

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