Long-term condition that causes pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints


  1. Tender, warm, swollen joints
  2. Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity
  3. Fatigue, fever and weight loss
  4. tiredness and a lack of energy
  5. a high temperature (fever)
  6. sweating
  7. a poor appetite
  8. weight loss


  1. used oral contraceptives
  2. a history of breastfeeding
  3. had a live birth
  4. regular menstrual periods
  5. gender
  6. age
  7. hormones
  8. family history

Risk Factors

  • gender
  • age
  • hormones
  • family history
  • smoking
  • environmental factors

Diagnostic Tests

  • blood test
  • full blood count
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • X rays,MRI


  • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
  • Biological treatments
  • Synovectomy Surgery to remove the inflamed synovium (lining of the joint). Synovectomy can be performed on knees, elbows, wrists, fingers and hips.
  • Tendon repair Inflammation and joint damage may cause tendons around your joint to loosen or rupture. Your surgeon may be able to repair the tendons around your joint.
  • Joint fusion Surgically fusing a joint may be recommended to stabilize or realign a joint and for pain relief when a joint replacement isn’t an option.
  • Total joint replacement During joint replacement surgery, your surgeon removes the damaged parts of your joint and inserts a prosthesis made of metal and plastic.
  • steroids


  • ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB)
  • naproxen sodium (Aleve)
  • methotrexate (Trexall, Otrexup, Rasuvo), leflunomide (Arava),
  • hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) and sulfasalazine (Azulfidine).
  • abatacept (Orencia), adalimumab (Humira), anakinra (Kineret)
  • certolizumab (Cimzia), etanercept (Enbrel)
  • golimumab (Simponi), infliximab (Remicade), rituximab (Rituxan),
  • tocilizumab (Actemra) and tofacitinib (Xeljanz)
  • aspirin
  • celecoxib (Celebrex)
  • ketoprofen (Orudis, Oruvail)
  • naproxen (Aleve)

Lifestyle Management

  • exercise
  • apply heat/cold
  • relax
  • connect with others
  • healthy diet