PERIODONTITIS

Description

Periodontitis is inflammation and infection of the ligaments and bones that support the teeth.

Symptoms

  • Inflamed (swollen) gums
  • Gums are bright red, sometimes purple
  • Gums hurt when touched
  • Gums recede, making teeth look longer
  • Extra spaces appear between the teeth
  • Pus may appear between the teeth and gums
  • Bleeding when brushing teeth
  • Bleeding when flossing
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Halitosis (bad breath)
  • Loose teeth
  • The patient’s “bite” feels different

Cause

  • Dental plaque
  • Persistent gingivitis
  • Bacterial toxins

Risk factors

  • Gingivitis
  • Heredity
  • Poor oral health habits
  • Tobacco use
  • Diabetes
  • Older age
  • Decreased immunity
  • Poor nutrition
  • Certain medications
  • Hormonal changes
  • Substance abuse
  • Problems with the way your teeth fit together when biting

Diagnostic Tests

  • Use a dental instrument to measure the pocket depth
  • Dental X-rays

Treatment

  • Nonsurgical treatments
  • Scaling
  • Root planing
  • Antibiotics
  • Surgical treatments
  • Flap surgery (pocket reduction surgery).
  • Soft tissue grafts.
  • Bone
  • Guided tissue regeneration.
  • Enamel matrix derivative application

Lifestyle management

  • Get regular dental cleanings
  • Use a soft toothbrush
  • Consider using an electric toothbrush
  • Brush your teeth twice a day
  • Floss daily
  • Use a mouth rinse
  • Supplement brushing and flossing