It is a chronic eye disorder causing vision loss in the retina,located in the center of eye


  • Straight lines or faces appearing wavy
  • Doorways seeming crooked
  • Objects appearing smaller or farther away
  • Increasing difficulty adapting to low light levels
  • Decreasing color intensity or brightness
  • Difficulty recognizing faces
  • Increasing vision haziness
  • Blurry or blind spots in central vision


  • Hereditary
  • Environmental factors

Risk Factors

  • Family history
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Being Caucasian
  • Being female
  • Diet low in fruits and vegetables

Diagnostic Tests

  • Visual acuity test
  • Dilated eye exam
  • Amsler grid
  • Angiogram
  • Tomography


  • For dry AMD :
  • Daily  high-dose combination of antioxidant vitamins and zinc
  • Replacing beta-carotene with a 5-to-1 mixture of the vitamins lutein and zeaxanthin
  • For wet AMD :
  • Laser surgery
  • Injections into the eye with a drug, aimed at stopping abnormal blood vessel growth
  • Photodynamic therapy

Lifestyle Management

  • Healthy diet which includes omega-3- fatty aacids
  • Regular exercise
  • Avoid smoking
  • Protect eyes from UV rays
  • Use of magnifying lenses and glasses
  • Adjusting computer font size and brightness level
  • Use of adaptive appliances ( clocks and telephones with extra-large numbers )
  • Brightening room light levels