Gestational hypertension


  • It is also known as pre-eclamsia toxemia, or toxemia of pregnancy
  • It is a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure, swelling due to fluid retention, and protein in the urine.


  1. Chronic hypertension
  2. Gestational hypertension
  3. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)


  • Severe headaches
  • Vomiting blood
  • Excessive swelling of the feet and hands
  • Smaller amounts of urine or no urine
  • Blood in your urine
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Dizziness
  • Excessive nausea
  • Ringing or buzzing sound in ears
  • Excessive vomiting
  • Drowsiness
  • Fever
  • Double vision
  • Blurred vision
  • Sudden blindness
  • Pain in the abdomen

Cause and Risk Factors

A woman is more likely to develop PIH if she:

  • Is under age 20 or over age 35
  • Has a history of chronic hypertension
  • Has a previous history of PIH
  • Has a female relative with a history of PIH
  • Is underweight or overweight
  • Has diabetes before becoming pregnant
  • Has an immune system disorder, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Has kidney disease
  • Has a history of alcohol, drug, or tobacco use
  • Is expecting twins or triplets

Diagnostic Tests

  • Prenatal test
  • Blood test
  • Ultrasound
  • Sonography


  • High blood pressure is treated with medication
  • Agnesium is given through an IV to prevent seizures
  • Follow the diet and fluid intake guidelines 
  • Maintain a quiet, restful environment