• on the outer surface area of the female genitalia.
  • forms as a lump or sore on the vulva that often causes itching.


  1. Itching that doesn’t go away
  2. Pain and tenderness
  3. Bleeding that isn’t from menstruation
  4. Skin changes, such as color changes or thickening
  5. A lump, wart-like bumps or an open sore (ulcer)
  6. Abnormal bleeding
  7. Burning


  1. increasing age
  2. vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)
  3. human papilloma virus (HPV) infection
  4. skin conditions that can affect the vulva, such as lichen sclerosus
  5. smoking
  6. vulvar carcinoma,vulvar melanoma

Risk factors

  • being 55 or older
  • smoking
  • having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia
  • having HIV or AIDS
  • having a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  • having a history of genital warts
  • having a skin condition that can affect the vulva, such as lichen planus

Diagnostic Tests

  • X-ray
  • computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • positron emission tomography (PET).
  • biopsy
  • physical exam


  • radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • surgery
  • Reconstructive surgery.
  • partial vulvectomy,radical vulvectomy

Lifestyle Management

  • Limit your number of sexual partners
  • Get the HPV vaccine
  • Use a condom every time