Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin


  1. constant hunger
  2. a lack of energy
  3. fatigue
  4. weight loss
  5. excessive thirst
  6. frequent urination
  7. dry mouth
  8. itchy skin
  9. blurry vision
  10. yeast infections
  11. slow-healing cuts or sores
  12. dark patches on your skin
  13. foot pain
  14. feelings of numbness


  1. age
  2. genetics
  3. weight
  4. ethnicity

Risk Factors

  • Prediabetes
  • gestational diabetes
  • polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • race
  • inactivity
  • fat distribution
  • weight

Diagnostic Tests

  • fasting plasma glucose test
  • oral glucose tolerance test
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test
  • Random blood sugar test


  • Diabetes medications and insulin therapy
  • weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery)
  • physical activity
  • monitoring blood glucose
  • Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet. Eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels steady.
  • Eat at regular intervals
  • Only eat until you’re full.


Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others)
glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol) and glimepiride (Amaryl)
repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix)
Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos)
DPP-4 inhibitors:
sitagliptin (Januvia), saxagliptin (Onglyza)
linagliptin (Tradjenta)
GLP-1 receptor agonists:
Exenatide (Byetta) and liraglutide (Victoza)
SGLT2 inhibitors:
canagliflozin (Invokana) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga)
 types of insulin:
Insulin glulisine (Apidra)
Insulin lispro (Humalog)
Insulin aspart (Novolog)
Insulin glargine (Lantus)
Insulin detemir (Levemir)
Insulin isophane (Humulin N, Novolin N)

Lifestyle Management

  • Maintain a diet high in nutrient-rich carbohydrates and fiber but low in unhealthy fats and simple carbohydrates.
  • Exercise daily.
  • Take all your medication as recommended.
  • Use a home monitoring system to test your own blood sugar levels between visits to your doctor. Your doctor will tell you how often
  • you should do that and what your target range should be