type 1 – where the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin


  1. Irritability and other mood changes
  2. In females, a vaginal yeast infection
  3. feeling very tired
  4. weight loss and loss of muscle bulk
  5. hunger
  6. thirst
  7. blurry vision
  8. fatigue
  9. excessive urination
  10. dramatic weight loss in a short period of time
  11. numbness or lack of sensation in the feet
  12. Symptoms of ketoacidosis (rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, flushed face, fruity breath odor, nausea, vomiting or stomach pain)


  1. immune system attacks the beta cells of the pancreas
  2. glucose out of the blood and into your cells
  3. environmental factors, such as viruses

Risk Factors

  • Exposure to certain viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, Coxsackie virus, mumps virus and cytomegalovirus
  • Early exposure to cow’s milk
  • Low vitamin D levels
  • Drinking water that contains nitrates
  • Early (before 4 months) or late (after 7 months) introduction of cereal and gluten into a baby’s diet
  • Having a mother who had preeclampsia during pregnancy
  • Being born with jaundice
  • family history &genetics
  • age

Diagnostic Tests

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.
  • Random blood sugar test
  • Fasting blood sugar test


  • Taking insulin
  • Carbohydrate counting
  • Frequent blood sugar monitoring
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight
  • insulin pump therapy
  • islet cell transplantation
  • pancreas transplant


  • Pramlintide (Symlin)
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • aspirin
  • cholesterol-lowering agents known as statins
  • angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

Lifestyle Management

  • Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control
  • healthy diet
  • exercise
  • avoid stress
  • foot care
  • avoid smoking & alcohol
  • schedule a yearly physical exam and regular eye exams.