TULAREMIA

Description

Tularemia is a rare infectious disease that typically attacks the skin, eyes, lymph nodes and lungs

Symptoms

  • Ulceroglandular tularemia:
  • A skin ulcer that forms at the site of infection — usually an insect or animal bite
  • Swollen and painful lymph glands
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Exhaustion
  • Glandular tularemia:
  • Swollen and painful lymph glands
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Exhaustion
  • Oculoglandular tularemia:
  • Eye pain
  • Eye redness
  • Eye swelling and discharge
  • An ulcer on the inside of the eyelid
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Oropharyngeal tularemia:
  • Fever
  • Throat pain
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Inflamed tonsils
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Pneumonic tularemia:
  • Dry cough
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Typhoidal tularemia:
  • High fever
  • Extreme exhaustion
  • Vomiting and diarrhea
  • Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)
  • Enlarged liver (hepatomegaly)
  • Pneumonia
  • Causes
  • Bacterium Francisella tularensis
  • Humans can get the disease through:
  • Insect bites
  • Exposure to sick or dead animals
  • Airborne bacteria
  • Contaminated food or wate

Risk Factors

  • People who hunt and trap animals
  • Those who live in heavily forested areas
  • People who work in gardening and landscaping
  • Working in wildlife management or veterinary medicine

Diagnostic Tests

  • Serology test
  • Pleural fluid test
  • Skin biopsy of a lesion
  • Lymph node biopsy
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Chest x-ray
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test

Treatment

  • Antibiotics which include:
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Doxycycline (Vibramycin)
  • Gentamicin
  • Streptomycin
  • Surgery

Lifestyle Management

  • Keep animal remains away from food or water
  • Wear gloves and goggles when handling any animal
  • Use insect repellents
  • Protect your outdoor pets with flea and tick medicines
  • Avoid drinking water from lakes or ponds