1. cancer occurs in the cells of the thyroid — a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple
  2. most common type of endocrine cancer


  1. hoarseness
  2. pain in the throat and neck
  3. difficulty swallowing
  4. swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  5. lump in the throat
  6. a cough


genetic changes (mutations)

Risk Factors

  • a family history of thyroid cancer
  • female gender
  • a history of breast cancer
  • a history of radiation exposure
  • height ,weight
  • bowel condition known as familial adenomatous polyposis
  • acromegaly

Diagnostic Tests

  • thyroid function test
  •  thyroglobulin test, which is used for papillary or follicular cancers
  • an ultrasound of the thyroid
  • a thyroid scan
  • a thyroid biopsy
  • calcium level in the blood
  • phosphorous level in the blood
  • calcitonin level in the blood
  • laryngoscopy
  • genetic testing
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)


  • radioactive iodine
  • external beam radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • Alcohol ablation
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • thyroid hormone therapy


  • Cabozantinib (Cometriq)
  • Sorafenib (Nexavar)
  • Vandetanib (Caprelsa)

Lifestyle Management

  • eat a healthy diet
  • get enough sleep
  • physical activity
  • connect with thyroid cancer survivors