TETANUS

Description

  1. rare condition caused by bacteria getting into a wound.
  2. affects the nervous system and causes muscles throughout the body to tighten.

Symptoms

  1. Spasms and stiffness in your jaw muscles (trismus)
  2. Stiffness of your neck muscles
  3. Difficulty swallowing
  4. Stiffness of your abdominal muscles
  5. Painful body spasms lasting for several minutes
  6. Fever
  7. Sweating
  8. Elevated blood pressure
  9. Rapid heart rate

Causes

  1. burns
  2. puncture wounds from piercings, tattoos, or injection drug use
  3. animal bites
  4. wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva
  5. dental infections
  6. insect bites
  7. chronic sores and infections
  8. powerful toxin, tetanospasmin, which impairs the nerves that control your muscles (motor neurons)

Risk Factors

  • Failure to get vaccinated or to keep up to date with booster shots against tetanus
  • An injury that lets tetanus spores into the wound
  • A foreign body, such as a nail or splinter
  • infections

Diagnostic Tests

 

  • physical examination
  • medical and immunization history

Treatments

  • tetanus immunoglobulin and antibiotics
  • breathing support using a ventilator
  • Antitoxin
  • tetanus vaccine
  • Sedatives.

Medications

  • tetanus immunoglobulin
  • penicillin
  •  

  • magnesium sulfate
  • certain beta blockers

Lifestyle Management

  • control bleeding of wounds
  • clean & cover the wound
  • change the dressing
  • use vaccine/booster