1. cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum
  2. sometimes referred to as a germ cell tumor


  1. A lump or enlargement in either testicle
  2. A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  3. A dull ache in the abdomen or groin
  4. A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
  5. Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
  6. Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
  7. Back pain

Risk factors

  • having a family history of the disease
  • having abnormal testicular development
  • being of Caucasian descent
  • having an undescended testicle, which is called cryptorchidism

Diagnostic Tests

  • a physical exam, which can reveal any abnormalities of the testicles, such as lumps or swelling
  • an ultrasound to examine the internal structure of the testicles
  • blood tests called tumor marker tests, which may show elevated levels of substances related to testicular cancer, like alpha-fetoprotein or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin


  • orchidectomy
  • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection)
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Testosterone replacement therapy
  • nerve sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)
  • Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (LRPLND)

Lifestyle Management

  • Learn enough about testicular cancer 
  • Connect with other cancer survivors
  • Stay connected with family