1. bacterial infection spread through inhaling tiny droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person.
  2. TB mainly affects the lungs


  1. persistent cough
  2. weight loss
  3. night sweats
  4. high temperature (fever)
  5. tiredness and fatigue
  6. loss of appetite
  7. new swellings that haven’t gone away after a few weeks


  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes TB
  2. sneezing
  3. coughing
  4. speaking
  5. singing
  6. HIV

Risk factors

  • diabetes
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • malnourishment
  • certain cancers
  • chemotherapy
  • Drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs
  • Some drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis
  • Malnutrition
  • Very young or advanced age
  • alcohol

Diagnostic Tests

  • CT,MRI,Ulrtasound
  • examining the inside of your body with a long, thin, flexible tube that contains a light and camera, which is inserted either through an opening such as your mouth (endoscopy) or a small cut made in your skin (laparoscopy)
  • urine and blood tests
  • Biopsy
  • skin test
  • Mantoux test
  • Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)


  • antibiotics
  • drug-resistant combination treatment


  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
  • Ethambutol (Myambutol)
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Bedaquiline
  • Linezolid


  • stay away from work, school or college until your TB treatment team advises you it is safe to return 
  • always cover your mouth – preferably with a disposable tissue – when coughing, sneezing or laughing
  • carefully dispose of any used tissues in a sealed plastic bag 
  • open windows when possible to ensure a good supply of fresh air in the areas where you spend time
  • do not sleep in the same room as other people, as you could cough or sneeze in your sleep without realising it
  • cover yourself 
  • use masks