SLEEP APNEA

 

Description

It is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts

Symptoms

  • Loud snoring
  • Waking up with a very sore or dry throat
  • Episodes of breathing cessation
  • Abrupt awakenings accompanied by shortness of breath
  • Morning headache
  • Insomnia
  • Hypersomnia
  • Attention problems
  • Irritability

Causes

  • Muscles in back of the throat relax
  • Snorting
  • Choking
  • Grasping sound

Risk Factors

  • Excess weight
  • Neck circumference
  • Narrow airway
  • Family history
  • Sex (male)
  • Use of alcohol, sedatives or tranquilizers
  • Smoking
  • Nasal congestion

Diagnostic Tests

  • Polysomnogram
  • EEG (electroencephalogram)
  • EMG (electromyogram)
  • EOG (electro-oculogram)
  • ECG (electrocardiogram)
  • Nasal airflow sensor
  • Snore microphone

Treatment

  • Therapies:
  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
  • Expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP)
  • Oral appliances
  • Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV)
  • Supplemental oxygen
  • Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP)
  • Surgery
  • Tissue removal
  • Jaw repositioning
  • Implants
  • Tracheostomy

Lifestyle Management

  • Lose excess weight
  • Exercise
  • Avoid alcohol and certain medications such as tranquilizers and sleeping pills
  • Sleep on your side or abdomen rather than on your back
  • Stop smoking