SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD)

Description

  1. psychological condition that results in depression
  2. It is normally provoked by seasonal change

Symptoms

Symptoms of wintertime SAD include:

  1. daytime fatigue
  2. difficulty concentrating
  3. feelings of hopelessness
  4. increased irritability
  5. lack of interest in social activities
  6. lethargy
  7. reduced sexual interest
  8. unhappiness 
  9. weight gain

Symptoms of summertime SAD include :

  1. agitation
  2. difficulty sleeping
  3. increased restlessness
  4. lack of appetite
  5. weight loss

Causes

  1. biological clock (circadian rhythm)
  2. serotonin levels
  3. melatonin levels
  4. long winter nights (due to higher latitudes) and less sunlight

Risk Factors

  • family members have a history of psychological conditions 
  • clinical depression or bipolar disorder. 
  • age
  • gender
  • Living far from the equator

Diagnostic Tests

  • physical exam
  • lab tests
  • psycological evaluation

Treatments

  • Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) 
  • dawn simulator
  • Light therapy 
  • healthy diet with lean protein, fruits, and vegetables
  • exercise
  • regular sleep
  • counselling and psychodynamic psychotherapy
  • anti depressants

Medications

  • bupropion (Wellbutrin XL, Aplenzin)

Lifestyle Management

  • Make your environment sunnier and brighter.
  • Take a long walk, eat lunch at a nearby park, or simply sit on a bench 
  • soak up in the sun
  • Exercise and other types of physical activity 
  • see a physician, counselor, or psychiatrist.