• most common type of kidney cancer in adults
  • also called hypernephroma, renal adenocarcinoma, or renal or kidney cancer.


  1. Blood in your urine, which may appear pink, red or cola colored
  2. Back pain just below the ribs that doesn’t go away
  3. Fatigue
  4. Intermittent fever
  5. a lump in the abdomen
  6. blood in the urine
  7. unexplained weight loss
  8. loss of appetite
  9. vision problems
  10. persistent pain in the side
  11. excessive hair growth (in women)
  12. fatigue


  1. family history of RCC 
  2. dialysis treatment
  3. hypertension
  4. obesity 
  5. smoking cigarettes 
  6. polycystic kidney disease (an inherited disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys) 
  7. the genetic condition Von Hippel-Lindau disease (characterized by cysts and tumors in various organs) 
  8. chronic abuse of certain prescribed and over-the-counter medications 

Risk factors

  • old age
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • high BP
  • Treatment for kidney failure.
  • Certain inherited syndromes

Diagnostic Tests

  • Urinalysis (UA)
  • Complete blood cell (CBC) count with differential
  • Electrolytes
  • Renal profile
  • Liver function tests (LFTs; aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT])
  • Serum calcium
  • Excretory urography
  • CT scanning
  • PET scanning
  • Ultrasonography
  • Arteriography
  • Venography
  • MRI


  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Molecular-targeted therapy
  • cryoablation
  • radiofrequency ablation
  • nephrectomy
  • nephron-sparing surgery
  • biological,targeted therapy
  • chemo therapy


  • interferon and aldesleukin (Proleukin)
  • axitinib (Inlyta), bevacizumab (Avastin), pazopanib (Votrient),
  • sorafenib (Nexavar) and sunitinib (Sutent) 
  • Temsirolimus (Torisel) and everolimus (Afinitor) 
  • Interferon (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) 
  • The programmed cell death–1 protein (PD-1) receptor blocker nivolumab and similar agents
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination 
  • Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus IL-2 
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 
  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation