PULMONARY EMBOLISM

Description

Blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs.

Symptoms

  1. anxiety
  2. clammy or bluish skin
  3. chest pain that may extend into your arm, jaw, neck, and shoulder
  4. fainting
  5. irregular heartbeat
  6. lightheadedness
  7. shortness of breath
  8. rapid heartbeat
  9. restlessness
  10. spitting up blood
  11. weak pulse
  12. cough

Causes

  1. previous blood clot
  2. obesity
  3. family history
  4. blockage of Fat from within the marrow
  5. blockage by Part of a tumor
  6. Air bubbles

Risk Factors

  • cancer
  • a family history of embolisms
  • fractures of the leg or hip
  • hypercoagulable states or genetic blood clotting disorders, including Factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation, and elevated
  • evels of homocysteine
  • a history of heart attack or stroke
  • major surgery
  • obesity
  • a sedentary lifestyle
  • age over 60 years
  • taking estrogen or testosterone

Diagnostic Tests

  • Computerised tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)
  • chest X-ray
  • electrocardiography (ECG)
  • MRI
  • duplex venous ultrasound
  • venography
  • blood test-D-dimer test

Treatments

  • anticoagulants
  • clot dissolvers (thrombolytics)
  • Clot removal
  • Vein filter
  • open surgery

Medications

  • Dabigatran
  • Warfarin
  • Heparin
  • Rivaroxaban 
  • Apixaban

Prevention

  • Compression stockings
  • anticoagulants
  • Pneumatic compression
  • Physical activity
  • Leg elevation.
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • weight check
  • Wear support stockings.