POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS)

Description

  • Common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age.
  • Woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance.
  • Problems with a women’s menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance.

Symptoms

  • Excess hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
  • Decrease in breast size
  • Deeper voice
  • Thin hair
  • Irregular periods
  • Acne
  • Weight gain
  • Pelvic pain
  • Anxiety or depression
  • Infertility

Causes

  • Genetics
  • Excess insulin
  • Raised levels of testosterone
  • Raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH)
  • Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)
  • Raised levels of prolactin (only in some women with PCOS)

Diagnostic Tests

  • Referral to a specialist
  • Thyroid function tests to determine how much of the thyroid hormone your body produces
  • Fasting glucose tests to measure your blood sugar levels
  • Lipid level tests to assess the amount of cholesterol in your blood
  • Ultrasound

Treatments

  • Medication
  • Surgery
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Fertility drugs
  • Contaceptives
  • Reduce excessive hair growth

Medications

  • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) medications
  • Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet)
  • Cyproterone acetate
  • Cyprindiol, Dianette, Marvelon and Yasmin
  • Flutamide
  • Finasteride

Lifestyle Management

  • Dietary changes
  • Weight check
  • Being active