Mental disorder with unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving.
Cluster A personality disorders

  • paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder.

Cluster B personality disorders

  • antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder
  • histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder

Cluster C personality disorders

  • avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.



Cluster A personality disorders

  1. characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior


Cluster B personality disorders

  1. dramatic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behavior.


Cluster C personality disorders

  1. characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior.



  • genetics
  • environmental factors


Risk Factors

  • Family history of personality disorders or other mental illness
  • Low level of education and lower social and economic status
  • Verbal, physical or sexual abuse during childhood
  • Neglect or an unstable or chaotic family life during childhood
  • Being diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder
  • Variations in brain chemistry and structure


Diagnostic Tests

  • Physical exam
  • lab test
  • psycological evaluation
  • screening test



  • Psychodynamic (reflective) psychotherapy
  • Cognitive behavioural therapy
  • Interpersonal therapy
  • medication
  • antidepressants, which can help improve a depressed mood, anger, or impulsivity
  • mood stabilizers, which prevent mood swings and reduce irritability and aggression
  • antipsychotic medications, also known as neuroleptics, which may be beneficial for people who often lose touch with reality
  • anti-anxiety medications, which help relieve anxiety, agitation, and insomnia



  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).


Lifestyle Management

  • Avoid drugs and alcohol
  • Get routine medical care
  • Take your medications as directed
  • Be an active participant in your care
  • focus on expressing your feelings and voicing your concerns about their behaviors