Causes bones to become weak and brittle Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.


  1. Back or Neck Pain
  2. Loss of Height
  3. Stooped Posture
  4. Fracture
  5. Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra


  1. people reach their peak bone mass by their early 20s
  2. Bone is living tissue with holes inside.
  3. Vitamin D helps you absorb calcium through your intestines.
  4. Abusing alcohol, smoking, and having an eating disorder are risk factors for osteoporosis.
  5. hormonal imbalance

Risk Factors

  • a family history of osteoporosis
  • reduced amounts of sex hormones (oestrogen and testosterone)
  • disorders of the pituitary gland
  • hyperparathyroidism (overactivity of the parathyroid glands)
  • heavy drinking and smoking
  • disorders of the adrenal glands
  • hyperthyroidism
  • BMI of 19 or less

Diagnostic Tests

  • Performing a Physical Exam
  • Bone Density Test
  • Blood and Urine Testing


  • Bisphosphonates
  • Antibodies
  • Hormone therapy
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • Thyrocalcitonin


  • Alendronate (Fosamax)
  • Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia)
  • Ibandronate (Boniva)
  • Zoledronic acid (Reclast)
  • Denosumab (Xgeva, Prolia)
  • Zoledronic acid (Reclast)
  • Fosamax
  • Boniva
  • Actonel

Lifestyle Management

  • dairy products
  • dark green vegetables
  • enriched grains and breads
  • soy products
  • preventing falls
  • avoid smoking and alcohol
  • exercise