• Inflammation of one or both testicles
  • Can be caused by either bacteria or a virus


  • Pain in the testicle
  • Blood in the semen
  • Discharge from penis
  • Fever
  • Groin pain
  • Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
  • Pain with urination (dysuria)
  • Scrotal swelling
  • Tender, swollen groin area on affected side
  • Tender, swollen, heavy feeling in the testicle
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


  • Caused by a bacterial or viral infection
  • Epididymitis
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Mumps virus

Risk Factors

  • Not being immunized against mumps
  • Having recurring urinary tract infections
  • Having surgery that involves the genitals or urinary tract
  • Being born with an abnormality in the urinary tract
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sex with a partner who has an STI
  • Sex without a condom
  • A personal history of an STI

Diagnostic Tests

  • Physical examination
  • STI screening
  • Urine test
  • Testicular Ultrasound
  • Nuclear scan of the testicles


  • Antibiotics, if the infection is caused by bacteria
  • Anti-inflammatory medicines
  • Pain medicines
  • Bed rest with the scrotum elevated


  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)
  • Naproxen (Aleve, others)


  • It cannot be completely prevented
  • Practice safe sex
  • Get immunized against mumps

Lifestyle Management

  • Abstain from sexual intercourse while getting treated
  • Rest in bed
  • Lie down so that your scrotum is elevated
  • Apply cold packs to your scrotum as tolerated
  • Avoid lifting heavy objects