Cancer that affects throat connecting back of nose/mouth


  1. blocked or stuffy nose
  2. lump in the neck
  3. hearing loss
  4. tinnitus
  5. bleeding in the nose
  6. nasal congestion
  7. headaches


  1. having a diet very high in salt-cured meats and fish
  2. having a job where you’re regularly exposed to hardwood dust
  3. exposure to human papilloma virus (HPV)
  4. increased risk by Epstein Barr virus

Risk Factors

  • more common in men
  • more common in south east asia and north african people
  • chemicals from salt cured fish and vegetables
  • family member with the disease increases the risk of cancer

Diagnostic Tests

  • nasendoscopy
  • panendoscopy 
  • CT or MRI scans
  • Biopsy
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • X ray


  • radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • surgery


  • Radiation doses during concurrent chemoradiation are up to 70 Gy
  • cisplatin
  • carboplatin
  • Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel 
  • Cetuximab
  • Gemcitabine 
  • Paclitaxel

Lifestyle Management

  • coping with dry mouth
  • Choose moist foods.
  • Avoid acidic or spicy foods and drinks
  • Keep your mouth moistened with water or sugarless candies
  • Brush your teeth several times each day