MYOCARDITIS

Description

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, the middle layer of the heart wall

Symptoms

  • Chest pain that may resemble a heart attack
  • Fatigue or listlessness
  • Fever
  • Joint pain or swelling
  • Leg swelling
  • Pale, cool hands and feet (a sign of poor circulation)
  • Rapid breathing
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Fainting, often related to irregular heart rhythms
  • Low urine output
  • Rashes
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Sore throat
  • Diarrhea

Causes

  • Viral infections:
  • Coxsackie
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Hepatitis C
  • Herpes
  • HIV
  • Parvovirus
  • Bacterial infections:
  • Chlamydia
  • Mycoplasma
  • Streptococcus
  • Treponema
  • Fungal infections:
  • Aspergillus
  • Candida
  • Coccidioides
  • Cryptococcus
  • Histoplasma
  • Exposure to Chemicals or radiation
  • Parasites:
  • Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Toxoplasma
  • Diseases:
  • Lupus
  • Wegener’s granulomatosis
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Takayasu’s arteritis

Risk Factors

  • Weak or compromised immune system
  • Exposure to cocaine

Diagnostic Tests

  • Blood tests
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Chest X-ray
  • MRI
  • Echocardiogram
  • Cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy
  • Viral PCR

Treatment

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Beta blockers
  • Diuretics
  • Intravenous (IV) medications
  • Ventricular assist devices
  • Intra-aortic balloon pump
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Lifestyle Management

  • Avoid smoking
  • Consume a low-salt diet
  • Rest and reducing the workload on your heart
  • Restrict amount of fluid intake
  • Proper hygiene