MIGRAINE

Disease

MIGRAINE

Description

  • Migraines are strong, pounding headaches typically on one side of the head

Types

  • Migraine with aura
  • Migraine without aura
  • Migraine aura without headache

Symptoms

Prodromal Stage:

  • Constipation
  • Mood changes, from depression to euphoria
  • Food cravings
  • Neck stiffness

Aura Stage:

  • Aphasia
  • Tinnitus
  • Vision loss
  • Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg

Attack Stage:

  • Sensitivity to light, sounds, and sometimes smells and touch
  • Nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Lightheadedness

Post-dome Stage:

  • Confusion
  • Moodiness
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness

Cause

  • Low levels of serotonin
  • Dietary deficiency in magnesium
  • Neuropeptides
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Vasodilators
  • Food additives
  • Sensory stimuli
  • Changes in the environment

Risk factors

  • Family history
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Hormonal changes

Complications

  • Abdominal problems
  • Serotonin syndrome
  • Chronic migraine
  • Status migrainous
  • Persistent aura without infarction
  • Migrainous infarction
  • Overdose of medication

Diagnostic Tests

  • Blood test
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)

Treatment

Pain relievers:

  • Aspirin
  • Ibuprofen
  • Acetaminophen

Triptans:

  • Sumatriptan (Imitrex)
  • Rizatriptan (Maxalt)
  • Zolmitriptan (Zomig)
  • Ergots
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Ergotamine
  • Caffeine

Anti-nausea medications:

  • Chlorpromazine
  • prochlorperazine (Compro)
  • metoclopramide (Reglan)

Opioid medications:

  • codeine
  • Glucocorticoids
  • prednisone
  • dexamethasone

Lifestyle management

  • Medication and supplements
  • Topiramate
  • Propranolol
  • Botulinum toxin type A
  • Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (t-SNS)
  • Create a consistent daily schedule
  • Exercise regularly
  • Reduce the effects of estrogen