1. Changes in the periods
  2. Vaginal dryness and pain
  3. Hot flashes
  4. Palpitations
  5. Night sweats
  6. Reduced muscle mass
  7. Sleep problems
  8. Joint stiffness, aches and pains
  9. Mood changes
  10. Weight gain and slowed metabolism
  11. Thinning hair and dry skin
  12. Loss of breast fullness
  13. A reduced sex drive


Aging accompany the loss of ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation causing menopause.

Risk Factors

As it is natural process in women, however it may cause some complications.

Diagnostic Tests

    Generally tests are not required. Sometimes may require

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Level in blood ( increase in menopause)
  • Estrogen Level in blood (decrease in menopause)


  • Generally does not require treatment. However to relieve the symptoms can have Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (taking oestrogen)
  • Low-dose antidepressants


  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • oestrogen tablets
  • vaginal oestrogen
  • calcium and vitamin D supplements

Lifestyle Management

  • Maintain Healthy weight
  • Sleep for more time
  • Use relaxation techniques
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Avoid smoking
  • Exercise regularly