MELIOIDOSIS

Description

It is an infectious disease that can infect humans or animals

Symptoms

  • Localized Infection:
  • Localized pain or swelling
  • Fever
  • Ulceration
  • Abscess
  • Pulmonary Infection:
  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Anorexia
  • Bloodstream Infection:
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Respiratory distress
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Joint pain
  • Disorientation
  • Disseminated Infection:
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Stomach or chest pain
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Headache
  • Seizures

Causes

  • Burkholderia pseudomallei
  • Contaminated soil
  • Ingestion of contaminated water

Risk Factors

  • People living in Southeast Asia and northern Australia
  • Diabetes
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Chronic renal disease
  • Muddy soil without good hand and foot protection
  • Lung disease
  • Cancer
  • Those on immunosuppressive therapy including steroids

Diagnostic Tests

  • Microscopic evaluation of blood, urine, sputum, or skin-lesion sample
  • Blood tests

Treatment

  • Antibiotics:
  • Imipenem
  • Meropenem (Merrem)
  • Penicillin
  • Doxycycline (Doryx, Oracea, Monodox)
  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin, Augmentin XR)
  • Ceftazidime (Fortaz, Tazicef)
  • Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (Timentin)
  • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  • Aztreonam (Cayston, Azactam)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(Bactrim, Sulfatrim)

Prevention

  • Wear Waterproof shoes or boots
  • Avoid contact with soil and standing water
  • Standard contact precautions (mask, gloves, and gown)
  • Wounds should be promptly and thoroughly washed clean and covered
  • Use pumping equipment to control water ingress
  • People with risk factors should avoid going outdoors during heavy rain and wind