1. Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
  2. Pelvic pain
  3. Irregular bleeding
  4. Vaginal discharge (Watery, bloody and have a foul odor)


  1. cervical cancer are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV)

Risk factors

  • Many sexual partners
  • Early Sexual intercourse
  • Weakened immune system
  • sexually transmitted infections
  • long-term oral use of birth control pills
  • use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy

Diagnostic Tests

  • Papanicolaou (Pap) testing.
  • Human Papillomavirus Testing
  • Colposcopy
  • Biopsy
  • Conization of cervix
  • Cystoscopy
  • Proctosigmoidoscopy
  • Chest x-ray
  • Imaging Studies for Metastasis

Differential Diagnosis

  • Cervicitis
  • Endometrial Carcinoma
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Vaginitis


Stage-Based Therapy

  • Stage 0: cryosurgery, surgical removal
  • Stage IA1: total hysterectomy, radical hysterectomy,
  • Stage IA2, IB, or IIA: Combined external beam radiation with brachytherapy and radical hysterectomy
  • Stage IIB, III, or IVA: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with radiation is the standard of care
  • Stage IVB and recurrent cancer: radiation therapy is used alone for control of bleeding and pain systemic chemotherapy is used for disseminated disease


  • Alkylating chemotherapy Agents
  • Antineoplastics (Antimetabolite)
  • Antineoplastics (Antimicrotubular)
  • Antineoplastics, (Topoisomerase Inhibitors)
  • Antineoplastics (VEGF Inhibitors)
  • Vaccines (Inactivated, Viral)

Lifestyle Management

  • Practice safe sex
  • Aviod smoking
  • Regular pap tests
  • Vaccinated against HPV