sudden damage to the kidneys that causes them to not work properly

can range from minor loss of kidney function to complete kidney failure



  • Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
  • Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
  • Drowsiness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
  • Chest pain or pressure



  • acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
  • severe or sudden dehydration
  • toxic kidney injury from poisons or certain medications
  • autoimmune kidney diseases, such as acute nephritic syndrome and interstitial nephritis
  • urinary tract obstruction
  • Bladder cancer
  • Blood clots in the urinary tract
  • Cervical cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Kidney stones
  • Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder
  • Prostate cancer


Risk factors

  • a serious condition that requires intensive care
  • Advanced age
  • Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney diseases
  • Liver diseases
  • high blood pressure
  • morbid obesity


Diagnostic Tests


  • blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  • serum potassium
  • serum sodium
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
  • urinalysis
  • creatinine clearance
  • serum creatinine
  • abdominal X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and abdominal MRI
  • blood tests
  • Urine test



  • Dialysis to remove toxins from your blood
  • Medications to restore blood calcium levels
  • Medications to control blood potassium.
  • Treatments to balance the amount of fluids in your blood



  • calcium, glucose
  • sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Kionex)


Lifestyle Management

  • Limit phosphorus
  • Avoid products with added salt.
  • Choose lower potassium foods.