NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

 

Description

  • It is a kidney disorder that causes the body to excrete too much protein in your urine

Symptoms

  • Edema particularly around eyes or in the feet or ankles
  • Foamy appearance of the urine
  • Weight gain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue

Causes

  • Minimal change disease
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis
  • Diabetes
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Amyloidosis
  • Blood clot in a kidney vein
  • Heart failure
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • lupus and certain cancers
  • Immune disorders
  • Genetic disorders

Risk Factors

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and malaria
  • Age (18 months and 8 years )
  • Sex (male )

Diagnostic Tests

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • Ultrasound
  • Kidney biopsy
  • Glucose tolerance test
  • HIV test

Treatment

  • A low-salt and protein diet
  • Vitamin D supplements and blood thinner drugs
  • Blood pressure medicines :
  • Benazepril (Lotensin)
  • Captopril (Capoten)
  • Enalapril (Vasotec)
  • Losartan (Cozaar)
  • Water pills (diuretics) :
  • Furosemide (Lasix)
  • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
  • Cholesterol-reducing medicines :
  • Fluvastatin (Lescol)
  • Lovastatin (Altoprev, Mevacor)
  • Pravastatin (Pravachol)
  • Simvastatin (Zocor
  • Blood thinners
  • Heparin or warfarin (Coumadin)
  • Immune system-suppressing medicines :
  • Corticosteroids

Lifestyle Management

  • Take foods low in saturated fat and cholesteroL
  • Cut down on salt
  • Take lean sources of protein