URINARY INCONTINENCE

Description

  • The loss of bladder control
  • The condition may be temporary or chronic

Types:

  1. Stress Incontinence
  2. Urge Incontinence
  3. Oveflow Incontinence

Symptoms

  • Frequent or constant dribbling of urine
  • A sudden, intense urge to urinate followed by an involuntary loss of urine
  • Never make to washroom on time
  • Urine leaks even from small pressures like sneezing, coughing, laughing

Causes

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Decaffeinated tea and coffee
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Corn syrup
  • Foods that are high in spice, sugar or acid, especially citrus fruits
  • Heart and blood pressure medications, sedatives, and muscle relaxants
  • Large doses of vitamins B or C
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Constipation

Risk Factors

  • Women are more susceptible
  • Increases with age
  • Being overweight
  • Neurological diseases
  • Diabetes

Diagnostic Tests

  • Urinalysis
  • Bladder diary
  • Post-void residual measurement
  • Urodynamic testing
  • Cystoscopy
  • Cystogram
  • Pelvic ultrasound

Treatment

Behavioral techniques:

  • Bladder training
  • Double voiding
  • Scheduled toilet trips
  • Fluid and diet management

Medications:

  • Anticholinergics
  • Alpha blockers
  • Topical estrogen

Medical Devices:

  • Urethral insert
  • Pessary
  • Interventional Therapies:
  • Bulking material injections
  • Botulinum toxin type A (Botox)
  • Nerve stimulators

Surgery:

  • Sling procedures
  • Bladder neck suspension
  • Prolapse surgery
  • Artificial urinary sphincter
  • Absorbent pads and Catheters

Medications

  • Oxybutynin (Ditropan XL)
  • Tolterodine (Detrol)
  • Darifenacin (Enablex)
  • Fesoterodine (Toviaz)
  • Solifenacin (Vesicare)
  • Trospium (Sanctura)
  • Mirabegron (Myrbetriq)
  • Tamsulosin (Flomax)
  • Alfuzosin (Uroxatral)
  • Silodosin (Rapaflo)
  • Terazosin (Hytrin)
  • Doxazosin (Cardura)

Prevention

  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Practice pelvic floor exercises, especially during pregnancy
  • Avoid bladder irritants, such as caffeine and acidic foods
  • Eat more fiber

Lifestyle Management

  • Use a washcloth to clean
  • Allow the skin to air-dry
  • Avoid frequent washing and douching
  • Keep a bedpan in the bedroom
  • Install an elevated toilet seat
  • Widen an existing bathroom doorway