LUNG CANCER

Description

  • Cancer cells invade and destroy healthy cells in the lung tissue
  • Eventually cancer cells accumulate to form a tumor
  • Usually no signs or symptoms in the early stages

Symptoms

  • A new cough that doesn’t go away
  • Changes in a chronic cough or “smoker’s cough”
  • Coughing up blood, even a small amount
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Wheezing
  • Hoarseness
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Bone pain
  • Headache

Causes

  • Smoking carcinogenic substances
  • Occupational exposure and pollution
  • Breathing in Radon
  • Passive smoking

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to radon gas
  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens
  • Family history of lung cancer
  • history of chronic illnesses that affect the lungs
  • Radiation therapy for treating other cancers

Diagnostic Tests

  • An X-ray image of your lungs
  • CT scan
  • Sputum cytology
  • Tissue sample (biopsy)
  • Bronchoscopy
  • MRI to check if the cancer has spread
  • Staging

Treatment

Surgical Procedures:

  • Wedge resection
  • Segmental resection
  • Lobectomy
  • Pneumonectomy

Therapies:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Biological therapies
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Cryotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy

Medications

  • Afatinib (Gilotrif)
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin)
  • Ceritinib (Zykadia)
  • Crizotinib (Xalkori)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Nivolumab (Opdivo)
  • Ramucirumab (Cyramza)

Prevention

  • Do not start smoking
  • Stop smoking
  • Avoid secondhand smoke
  • Test home for Radon
  • Avoid carcinogens at work
  • Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables
  • Exercise most days of the week

Lifestyle Management

  • Learn enough about lung cancer to make decisions
  • Keep friends and family close
  • Find someone to talk with
  • Join support group
  • Eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
  • Include other plant-based foods like beans and grains.
  • Stay away from high-fat foods.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol or limit the amount you drink