EMPHYSEMEA

Disease

EMPHYSEMEA

Description

  • Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • It gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs making you progressively more short of breath

Symptoms

  • Exhaustion
  • Weight loss
  • Depression
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Chest infection
  • Persistent wheezing
  • Edema
  • Tiredness
  • Weight loss

Cause

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Marijuana smoke
  • Air pollution
  • Manufacturing fumes
  • Substances that have been linked to COPD include:
  • Cadmium dust and fumes
  • Grain and flour dust
  • Silica dust
  • Welding fumes
  • Isocyanides

Diagnostic Tests

  • X-rays
  • Blood test
  • Pulse oximetry
  • lung functioning tests
  • arterial blood gas tests
  • electrocardiogram (ECG)

 

Treatment

Bronchodilators:

  • beta-2 agonist inhalers – salbutamol and terbutaline
  • antimuscarinic inhalers – ipratropium

Long-acting bronchodilator inhalers:

  • beta-2 agonist inhalers – salmeterol, formoterol and indacaterol
  • antimuscarinic inhalers – tiotropium, glycopyronium and aclidinium
  • Steroid inhalers
  • Theophylline tablets
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation
  • Nutrition therapy
  • Supplemental oxygen
  • Surgery
  • Lung volume reduction surgery
  • Lung transplant

Lifestyle management

  • Avoid other respiratory irritant
  • Protect yourself from cold air
  • Stop smoking
  • Prevent respiratory infections
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Get vaccinated
  • Check the weather

Watch what you breathe:

  • Dusty places
  • Fumes, such as car exhausts
  • smoke
  • Air freshener sprays or plug-ins